Il mio grazie personale a padre Federico Lombardi

CONCLAVE: P.LOMBARDI, NON ANCORA DEFINITA DATAOggi, 11 luglio 2016, Papa Francesco ha accolto la rinuncia, presentata da P. Federico Lombardi, dall’ufficio di Direttore della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede.

Padre Federico Lombardi è un grande comunicatore. Ovviamente potrei scrivere subito dell’aspetto professionale della sua figura, ma qui vorrei esprimermi innanzitutto per esperienza personale, umana e spirituale.

È ben noto per le sue doti evidenti e sperimentate al servizio della Santa Sede sin dal 1990, quando divenne direttore dei programmi della Radio Vaticana, fino ad oggi. Io lo ricordo anche per il suo prezioso servizio a La Civiltà Cattolica dal 1973 al 1984. Io, qui, in realtà lo ricordo innanzitutto come Superiore Provinciale dei Gesuiti d’Italia, carica che ha ricoperto dal 1984 fino al 1990.

Il p. Lombardi che io ho conosciuto è stato il padre Lombardi «Provinciale» dei gesuiti. Se adesso sono gesuita, infatti, è «per colpa» sua: lui mi ha ammesso nel noviziato della Compagnia, vagliando la mia vocazione. Tuttavia prima di giungere a questa decisione ha conosciuto e dialogato molto con mia madre, che all’inizio era molto contraria alla mia scelta in quanto sono figlio unico: non ho né fratelli né sorelle. In questa occasione ho compreso che p. Federico Lombardi non «fornisce informazioni» ma «condivide la sua esperienza». Infatti ha ascoltato mia mamma facendosi davvero carico del suo problema, assumendo le sue istanze in maniera equilibrata, ascoltandola, comunicando con lei a un livello profondo. Posso dirvi che, anche prima di accettare la mia vocazione, come poi ha fatto pienamente, da subito mia madre ha imparato a voler bene e ad apprezzare quello che sarebbe stato il mio Superiore religioso.

Successivamente, quando non era più Provinciale, ho sperimento la capacità comunicativa di p. Lombardi in altre occasioni, come, ad esempio, le nostre «Congregazioni Provinciali», una sorta di «capitolo» dell’Ordine. Quando c’era un problema si faceva ricorso a lui. E in genere i problemi erano (e sono tuttora) di comunicazione.

Conosco il suo impegno da noi a Civiltà Cattolica soltanto grazie all’eco che ancora in casa è vivo della sua azione come vicedirettore. Padre Lombardi lavorava, lavorava tanto. In quegli anni, tra l’altro, scalava il monte Amaro (2.800 metri, la cima più alta della Majella) in 3 ore, mi dicono. In metà tempo rispetto a molti altri: un’immagine della sua capacità di lavoro e di servizio.

Circa il suo ruolo come direttore della Sala Stampa posso aggiungere un piccolo aneddoto: alla fine del Conclave, dopo l’elezione del Papa, ho incontrato una giornalista statunitense considerata «pericolosa». Ero molto nervoso per questa intervista. Ma mi ha colpito la prima cosa che mi disse: «Sa una cosa, padre? Io amo il p. Lombardi». Alla mia domanda sul perché, su che cosa intendesse dire, lei proseguì: «sono rimasta colpita dal suo modo di gestire con precisione, ma anche leggerezza il suo ruolo».

Padre Lombardi esprime una tensione pastorale di accoglienza unita a una discrezione che non lo mette sotto la luce dei riflettori, eppure lo rende in qualche modo necessario: crea l’ambiente comunicativo corretto. Io lo ammiro anche perché ha saputo adattarsi a due stili completamente diversi di vivere il Pontificato: la discrezione e la delicatezza di Benedetto; la spontaneità comunicativa imprevedibile di Francesco.

Concludo con un altro piccolo tassello aneddotico. Mi ha colpito quando in un’occasione ufficiale di festeggiamento per l’Ottantesimo l’anniversario della Radio Vaticana, padre Lombardi disse con la sua proverbiale compostezza: «La Radio Vaticana non è una radio». No, non intendeva fare il verso a René Magritte che nel 1948 dipinse «Questa non è una pipa», ma far capire che il mondo della comunicazione era cambiato e che la convergenza dei media fa sì che non ci sia un «mezzo» di comunicazione, e poi un altro «mezzo», e poi un altro «mezzo»… tutti uno accanto all’altro come differenti pianeti di un sistema solare. Voleva far capire all’uditorio che la comunicazione è complessa e ogni piattaforma comunicativa non può far a meno delle altre. La Radio oggi è anche testi, video, social networks… Ovviamente questo lavoro è possibile anche grazie alle sinergie tra i diversi media della Santa Sede. E la sinergia non si inventa: è frutto di una sapiente mediazione, nella quale il p. Lombardi è maestro. E la sua maestria si è confermata nella gestione coraggiosa e sapiente della complessa macchina comunicativa del recente Sinodo straordinario sulla famiglia.

Aggiungo una parola sui viaggi con Papa Francesco: andare sul volo papale guidati e accompagnati da p. Federico è stata una esperienza straordinaria: lui è sempre stato consapevole delle possibili sorprese dietro l’angolo, ma è anche sempre stato capace di adeguarvisi con un aplomb magistrale. Non dimenticherò mai il confronto con lui su discorsi, eventi e sorprese… E soprattutto la fraternità e la condivisione, a volte anche del luogo dove fare una breve sosta.

A te, caro Federico, complimenti e, di cuore, grazie per il tuo servizio a tre Papi (molto diversi tra loro!), svolto sempre con intelligenza, fedeltà e passione umile e disponibile per il bene della Chiesa!

Antonio  Spadaro S.I.
direttore de La Civiltà Cattolica

La mirada de BERGOGLIO es la de MAGELLANES

Pope Francis: the Idea of Europe and the end of the Charlemagne era

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Pope Francis received the prestigious Charlemagne Prize May 6, 2016.  In his discourse he cited the great Jesuit theologian Erich Przywara, teacher of Hans Urs von Balthasar and author of the essay Idee Europa [The Idea of Europe] [1] Citing L’idea di Europa, that he knows well, Francis reveals his conviction, which was that of the Jesuit theologian: we are at the end of the Constantinian epoch and the experiment of Charlemagne.  It is interesting, therefore, that the Pope quotes Przywara precisely in this Carolinian context.

«Christendom», that is that process started with Constantine in which he implements an organic bond between culture, politics, institutions and the Church, is concluding.  Przywara — together with the Austrian historian Friedrich Heer [2] — is convinced that Europe was born and raised in relationship and in contraposition with the Sacrum imperium, that has its own roots in the attempt by Charlemagne to organize the West as a totalitarian state.

This process is evaluated by Heer as «the possibility for the Church to resume the evangelical paths started by Francis of Assisi, Ignatius of Loyola and Teresa of Lisieux, breaking down the barriers that separated her from the poor to whom Christianity—in the theological political conjuncture of the various forms of Christianity—always appeared as an ideological policy —and the guarantee — of the dominant groups». [3] For Heer the end of Christendom does not mean the decline of the West, but rather brings in itself a decisive theological resource in as much as the mission of Charlemagne is at the end.  Christ himself resumes the work of conversion.  The wall falls that almost up to the present day has impeded the Gospel from reaching the deeper layers of the conscience, from penetrating to the center of the soul. [4]

He thus radically refuses the idea of the realization of the Kingdom of God on earth, that was at the base of the Holy Roman Empire and all similar political and institutional forms, up to the dimension of the political «party».  If so understood, in fact, the «chosen people» would enter into an intricate interweaving of religious, institutional and political dimensions that cause them to lose awareness of its universal diakonia and would contraposition them to those who are alienated, to the those who do not belong, that is the «enemy».

The Pope has confirmed his vision citing Przywara a few days after having received the prize, May 9, in an interview with the French daily La Croix.  Questioned on why he speaks of the «European identity», the pontiff answers: «We need to speak of roots in the plural because there are so many. In this sense, when I hear talk of the Christian roots of Europe, I sometimes dread the tone, which can seem triumphalist or even vengeful. It then takes on colonialist overtones. John Paul II, however, spoke about it in a tranquil manner. Yes, Europe has Christian roots and it is Christianity’s responsibility to water those roots. But this must be done in a spirit of service as in the washing of the feet. Christianity’s duty to Europe is one of service. As Erich Przywara, the great master of Romano Guardini and Hans Urs von Balthasar, teaches us, Christianity’s contribution to a culture is that of Christ in the washing of the feet. In other words, service and the gift of life. It must not become a colonial enterprise».[5]

With Przywara, Bergolio recognizes — precisely as is affirmed in the Letter to the Hebrews (13:13) — that Christians must «go outside of the camp to bring the outrage of Christ».[6]  And the Church must be in exit and never be a closed and excluding entity.  She is to follow Christ outside of the wall of the holy city, where he died as an accursed man to be able to gather together the whole of humanity, even those who believed him accursed and abandoned by God (cfr Gal 3:13).

Here arises the idea of the Church as «a field hospital», also evoked in the discourse of the President of the European Council, Tusk.  And in fact Francis continues in his discourse affirming that «To the rebirth of a Europe weary, yet still rich in energies and possibilities, the Church can and must play her part».  How?  Proclaiming the gospel, that «more than ever finds expression in going forth to bind the wounds of humanity with the powerful yet simple presence of Jesus, and his mercy that consoles and encourages».

Here is, therefore, what the task of the Church should be, definitely post-Carolinian: to be in exit, going out and encountering the wounded.  This is what Francis is doing, seeking thus to contribute to enlarging the soul of Europe.

[1] Cfr J. L. Narvaja, «La crisi di ogni politica cristiana. Erich Przywara e l’“idea di Europa”», in La Civiltà Cattolica 2016 I 437-448. Cfr also A. Spadaro, «La diplomazia di Francesco. La misericordia come processo politico», in La Civiltà Cattolica  2016 I 209-226, 218-220.
[2] E. Przywara, L’ idea d’Europa. La «crisi» di ogni politica «cristiana», Trapani, Il Pozzo di Giacobbe, 2013, 119. Cfr F. Heer, Aufgang Europas. Eine Studie zu den Zusammenhängen zwischen politischer Religiosität, Frömmigkeitsstil und dem Werden Europas im 12. Jahrhundert, Wien, Europa Verlag, 1949.
[3] F. Mandreoli – J. L. Narvaja, «Introduzione», in E. Przywara, L’ idea d’Europa. La «crisi» di ogni politica «cristiana», Trapani, Il Pozzo di Giacobbe, 2013, 55.
[4] Cfr ivi, 55; G. Zamagni, «“Tra Costantino e Hitler”. L’Europa di Friedrich Heer», in Id., Fine dell’era costantiniana. Retrospettiva genealogica di un concetto critico, Bologna, il Mulino, 2012, 55-57.
[5] G. Goubert – S. Maillard, «Le devoir du christianisme pour l’Europe, c’est le service», in La Croix, 17 maggio 2016.
[6] E. Przywara, L’ idea d’Europa…, cit., 122 s.

Il mio Tweetbook del Viaggio di Papa Francesco in Armenia – #PapaArmenia e #PopeInArmenia

Ecco il mio TweetBook del Viaggio di Papa Francesco in Armenia (24-26 giugno 2016). Ci sono circa 190 immagini di questo viaggio durato 3 giorni.

Seguendo il Papa nel suo viaggio ho preso appunti visivi: immagini scattate senza ricercatezza stilistica ma che cercano di comunicare l’istante, il gesto, il contesto. A volte sono immagini «sporche», persino sfocate e mosse, ma forse proprio così possono ricordare a me e comunicare ad altri l’intensità emotiva e l’impatto dell’evento. In genere sono taggate con l’hashtag #PapaArmenia e #PopeInArmenia.

Ho inviato i Tweet “in diretta”, uno dopo l’altro, e adesso li ho raccolti in questo book digitale in pdf che si può scaricare liberamente da QUI.

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Per continuare la tradizione di una rivista come “La Civiltà Cattolica”…

For Pope Francis the world is always in movement: 5 traits of his pontificate

Pope Francis touches wall in Bethlehem

— A pontificate of discernment and «incomplete thought»
— A pontificate of tension between spirit and institution
— A pontificate of frontier and challenges
— A pontificate for a Church, «field hospital»
— A pontificate of geopolitical impact

 1. A pontificate of discernment and «incomplete thought»

For Pope Francis the world is always in movement: the ordinary perspective, with its metrics of judgment to classify what is important and what is not, doesn’t work.

Being men and women of discernment means for the Pope being men and women of «incomplete thought», of «open thought».

That means that he does not seem to have a «project», that is a theoretical and abstract plan to apply to history.

He doesn’t have a road map written a priori, that refers to ideas or concepts. He always refers to «times, places, people», as St. Ignatius of Loyola requires, and therefore not ideological abstractions.  That interior vision does not impose itself on history, seeking to organize it according to its own coordinates, but it dialogs with reality, it sets itself into the history of men and women, it unfolds in time.

This «open» vision gives substance to that which he intends by «reform», that has fire in the heart and not in the structures.

At times    the Pope opens discourses without however closing them right away or drawing hasty conclusions, thus leaving space to dialogue and debate, even among those who have high ecclesial responsibilities (cfr Evangelii gaudium [EG], n. 32, on the conversion of the papacy,  n. 51 on the discipline of the sacraments,  n. 104 on the role of women).

In this journey Pope Francis does not believe that we must expect from his magisterium «a definitive or complete word on every question which affects the church and the world» (EG 16).  In fact «neither the Pope nor the Church have a monopoly on the interpretation of social realities or the proposal of solutions to contemporary problems» (EG 184).  Then «in her dialogue with the State and with society, the Church does not have solutions for every particular issue» (EG 241).

2. A pontificate of tension between spirit and institution

Pope Francis writes in Evangelii gaudium: «The Church has to accept this unruly freedom of the Word, which accomplishes what it wills in ways that surpass our calculations and ways of thinking» (EG 22).

A dialectical tension always exists in the discourse that Pope Francis makes between spirit and institution: the one never negates the other, but the first must animate the second in an effective manner.

Then, further along, he affirms that the Church is «a people of pilgrims and evangelizers, transcending any institutional expression, however necessary» (EG 111).

It is interesting to note this fruitful tension further: that between the Church as «pilgrim people» and the Church as «institution», that reflects the two definitions of Church highly preferred by Pope Francis: «faithful people of God in journey» (Lumen gentium) and «holy mother hierarchical Church» (Ignatius of Loyola).

This tension animates Francis’ reflection with regard to that which he has called the «conversion of the papacy» (EG 32).

3. A pontificate of frontier and challenges

Encountering the Jesuits of La Civiltà Cattolica Pope Francis recommended inhabiting the frontiers: «you must go towards the frontiers and not carry the frontiers home to paint them a bit or to domesticate them». Our task, therefore, is that of «accompanying […] the culture and social processes, and those who are living difficult transitions, even taking charge of conflicts».

We see reality better from the periphery than from the center.  Here’s the reason for his circumnavigation to the borders of the world and of human life.  He is seeking for the «soul».  And the soul is not only the «center», but the pulsing and living «heart».

Francis is like a doctor who seeks to understand if the heart functions, observing if and how the blood flows everywhere, and also investigating the peripheral circulation.

His most radical question is: how do we proclaim the Gospel to everyone, whatever is    his or her   existential condition? This is what really matters.

4. A pontificate for a Church, «field hospital»

At the heart of my discussion with Pope Francis an image emerged: that of the Church as a ‘field hospital after a battle’. It is a very potent image, which also contains within it the dramatic perception of a world living in warlike conditions with people who are dying and people who are injuried.

The weakness of the human condition is the starting point for the mission that must    above all   consider to whom the message of salvation should be addressed. If the Church has    before it    a wounded man who needs salvation, it cannot and must not proceed to measure his cholesterol or glycaemia, It has to save his life, it has to bring him or her the message of salvation.

This is why in my interview the Pope states explicitly: ‘We cannot dwell only on issues related to abortion, gay marriage and the use of contraceptive methods.’

I have always found myself thinking about an event in Pope Francis’s life which I have always connected with the attitude of ‘cure’, not least in the medical sense, which he frequently expresses: the fact that before entering the seminary Bergoglio fell seriously ill at the age of 21. He suffered a near-fatal lung infection. In a moment of high fever he embraced his mother, saying desperately: ‘Tell me what’s happening to me!’. I think that in some way this marked the great and profound human and spiritual sensitivity of Pope Francis.

One question that the Pope asked vibrantly during our conversation was: ‘How are we treating the people of God?’ It’s a central question, one that he poses every day, even before worrying about structures.

And the word ‘treat’ should perhaps be read in the sense of ‘cure’ in the context of a ‘field hospital’.

This is being…. “merciful”. Mercy means Healing.

5. A pontificate that has a geopolitical impact

Mercy can even have cultural and political value.  It is no coincidence that there are many people who judge Francis also as a prophetic spirit who affects politics.

What does mercy mean as a political category?

In an extreme synthesis, we can say: don’t ever consider anything or anyone as definitively «lost» in relationships among nations, peoples and states.  This is the core of its political meaning. On this Francis wrote: «It is desireable that even the language of politics and diplomacy let’s us be inspired by mercy, that never gives up anything as lost».

Precisely this fluidity is the reason that makes us understand why Pope Francis never espouses rigid intérpretive mechanisms to address international situations and crises.

The Holy See has established or wants to establish direct and fluid relationships with the super powers, without wanting to enter into pre-established networks of alliance and influence.

Essentially, the position wanted by the Pope consists in not giving wrongs and reasons, because at the root, however, there is a struggle for power of supremacy.

There is therefore no imagining a deployment for moral reasons. But the necessity to see the picture by a different optic is required. And this is why is so important his agility in building bridges between lands and distant positions (China, Russia, Iran,…)

All this puts into motion unpredictable logic, precisely of a polyhedric and multipolar vision.

… And now again we got back here at the very beginning: Francis is a pope who is living his ministry as a ministry of discernment, of «incomplete thought»…

Repubblica delle Idee: Dove va la Chiesa al tempo di Francesco?

Repubblica delle Idee: Spadaro e Melloni – Dove va la Chiesa al tempo di Francesco? (Video integrale)
Il gesuita e teologo Antonio Spadaro e lo storico studioso del cristianesimo Alberto Melloni sul palco della Repubblica delle Idee, al Maxxi di Roma, per parlare della spinta riformatrice del pontificato di papa Bergoglio, a quattro anni dalla sua elezione. Il dibattito con Marco Ansaldo.

The gaze of Magellan: Pope Francis’ European dream

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(Brief excerpt from: A. Spadaro, «Lo sguardo di Magellano. L’Europa, Papa Francesco e il Premio Carlo Magno», in La Civiltà Cattolica 2016 II 469-479 translated by Reyanna Rice)

— What is the vision that the non European Pope has of Europe?

Pope Francis received the prestigious Charlemagne Prize May 6, 2016 . Here is the reason for the prize: «in tribute to His extraordinary commitment to favor peace, understanding, and mercy in a European Society of values».

What is the vision that the non European Pope has of Europe?  The Bergolio’s gaze is a European gaze, because his roots are in the Piedmont and his formation is radically European as well.  He himself, in his discourse, recognizes himself as a son «who rediscovers in Mother Europe his roots of life and faith».  And he is however Argentine and his ecclesial experience is Latin American.

The itinerary of his trips on the European continent began from Lampedusa–«Europe’s gate», and therefore goal of a trip more European than Italian—and from Albania, a land of Europe that is not yet part of the European Union and of an Islamic majority.  From these «peripheries» the Pope is as if rebounded briefly to the «center», that is at Strasburg, to visit the European institutions, and then continues ever to the borders: Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Lesbos, other tragic «European gates».  In October he will be at Lund, in Sweden.  Mercy for Francis is delineated politically in freedom of movement.[1]  He approaches Europe from her distant «periphery».

To understand this statement beyond every easy slogan, we read what Francis declared in an interview released by La Cárcova News, a popular magazine produced in an Argentine villa miseria: «When I speak of periphery, I speak of borders.  Normally we move in space that in one way or another we control.  This is the center.  In the measure in which we go out from the center and distance ourselves from it, we discover more things and, when we look at the center of these new things that we have discovered, new places, from these peripheries, we see that reality is different.  One thing is to observe reality from the center and another to see it from the last place where you arrived.  An example: Europe seen from Madrid in the 16th century was one thing, however when Magellan arrives at the end of the American continent, he sees Europe from a new point reached and understands another thing».[2]

resizeBergolio’s gaze is, therefore, that of Magellan, and he wants to continue to be him.  Francis wants to know Europe starting from Rome and circumnavigating the continent starting from the south and proceeding to the east and then—he will do it in October—pushing into the deep north, in Sweden.  There was not, at the moment, any short trip to the west, towards the West.

In the interview quoted he continues: «You see reality better from the periphery than from the center».  Here’s the reason for his external journey, for his circumnavigation to the borders.  This is what Francis seeks between Lampedusa, Tirana, Lesbos and Lund: the European «soul».  And the soul is not only the «center», but the pulsing and living «heart».  Francis is like a doctor who seeks to understand if the heart functions, observing if and how the blood flows everywhere, and also investigating the peripheral circulation.

Another term to express this vision is «multipolarity».  Francis said it clearly in his discourse to the Council of Europe November 25th, 2014: Europe cannot be understood in terms of a few polar «centers», because « tensions – whether constructive or divisive – are situated between multiple cultural, religious and political poles».  Multipolarity involves «striving to create a constructive harmony, one free of those pretensions to power».  Then we must think of Europe in a multifaceted manner in its relationships and tensions.  That of Francis is a non deterministic European geopolitics, aware of the fact that the redistribution of power among the principal actors does not account for the profound dynamics of the Continent.

— Europe: not a space to defend, but a process to implement

«Creativity, ingenuity and the capacity to rise above and to go beyond her own limits belong to the European soul», Francis began.  And here in his discourse immediately surfaces the reference to eccentricity, to the overcoming of limits and boundaries.  Europe is herself because she knows to go beyond herself.  Her «house» is built going beyond the ashes of «tragic conflicts, culminating in the most horrific war ever known»

This vision therefore is profoundly bound to becoming, to dialectical overcoming of walls and obstacles.  Europe is not a «thing», but a «process» still in action with «a more complex and highly mobile world».[3]  Her Fathers have «laid the foundations» an «enlightened project» that is always a work in progress.  We must therefore verify not if the house holds, but if its realization follows that wise project.  Here is the opinion of the Pope: «Their new and exciting desire to create unity seems to be fading; we, the heirs of their dream, are tempted to yield to our own selfish interests and to consider putting up fences here and there»

Why has this happened?  Because — the Pope affirmed, consistent with his approach to reality — Europe is «more concerned with preserving and dominating spaces than with generating processes of inclusion and change.  There is an impression that Europe is tending to become increasingly “entrenched”, rather than open to initiating new social processes capable of engaging all individuals and groups in the search for new and productive solutions to current problems. Europe, rather than protecting spaces, is called to be a mother who generates processes».

If Europe considers herself as a «space», then sooner or later will be—and it has already come—the moment of fear, of the fear that the space is invaded.  Space is first of all defended.  If instead Europe is to consider herself as an ongoing process, then she understands how it puts energies into movement, accepting the challenges of history.  Then even difficulties and contradictions «can become powerful forces of unity».

 

FOOTNOTES

[1] Cfr A. Spadaro, «La diplomazia di Francesco. La misericordia come processo politico», in Civ. Catt. 2016 I 209-226.
[2] That text of the audio interview is found transcribed and translated at the site http://www.terredamerica.com (10 marzo 2015).  The emphasis is ours.
[3] Pope Francis, Discorso to the European Parliament, Strasburgo, 25 novembre 2014.

 

MIGRACIONES, HUMANISMO Y CIVILIZACIÓN. Habla el General de la Compañía de Jesús

13043756_10154040791007508_6538184255095683394_nAdolfo Nicolás, S.J.

Traducción de “Migrazioni, umanesimo e civiltà”, alocución reproducida en La Civiltà Cattolica, nº 3976, 27/02/2016. pp. 313-315.

El 14 de enero de 2016, la iglesia del Gesù en Roma acogió, en un conmovedor clima de oración y de escucha, los testimonios vitales de numerosos refugiados. Se vivió así, desde la solidaridad y la cercanía, la Jornada Mundial del Emigrante y del Refugiado. Reproducimos aquí la intervención improvisada del P. Adolfo Nicolás, Superior general de la Compañía de Jesús, durante su encuentro con los inmigrantes, refugiados y voluntarios del Centro Astalli, institución del Servicio Jesuita a Refugiados (JRS).

Sin duda, tendríamos que estar agradecidos a los migrantes que llegan a Italia y a Europa por un motivo: nos ayudan a descubrir el mundo. He vivido en Japón durante más de treinta años y he trabajado cuatro años en un centro para inmigrantes. La mayoría de ellos no disponía de papeles en regla, así que puedo hablar por experiencia propia. Y, precisamente desde la luz de lo que he vivido, lo confirmo: las migraciones son una verdadera fuente de beneficios para el país. Lo han sido siempre, por encima de las dificultades y las incomprensiones.

La comunicación entre las diversas civilizaciones se alcanza, de hecho, a través de los refugiados y de los migrantes; así es como se ha formado el mundo que conocemos. No ha sido solo el hecho de sumar una cultura a otra: se ha producido una verdadera transformación. Eso es lo que nos enseña la Historia. También las religiones: el cristianismo, el islam y el judaísmo se han difundido por el mundo gracias a los migrantes que abandonaron su país y se desplazaron de un sitio a otro.

Por eso les debemos estar agradecidos, porque nos han “dado” el mundo. Sin ellos estaríamos encerrados dentro de nuestra propia cultura, conviviendo con nuestros prejuicios y con nuestras limitaciones. Un país siempre corre el riesgo de encerrarse en horizontes muy estrechos, muy pequeños. Pero gracias a ellos, nuestro corazón puede abrirse y también nuestro propio país puede abrirse a dinámicas nuevas.

Conocer y ser conscientes de los problemas comunes y cotidianos, caer en la cuenta de nuestra interdependencia, nos une en la tarea de llegar a ser hombres y mujeres. Son los migrantes los que han levantado un país como Estados Unidos en el que se ha desarrollado la democracia. Esto no es fruto del azar, se debe a ese melting pot que se ha producido, un crisol de culturas y de personas que ha dado origen a un país así. Hay otros muchos casos en el mundo: Argentina, por ejemplo, y muchos otros.

Así pues, los migrantes podrían ayudarnos a abrir el corazón, a ser más grandes que nosotros mismos. Y eso es un don extraordinario. Por tanto, no son solo huéspedes, son gente que puede alentar la vida civil, ofrecer una aportación notable a la cultura y a sus profundos cambios. Precisamente gracias a ellos continúa enraizándose el humanismo. Tendríamos que ser conscientes de eso.
13015602_10154040790512508_1248335829081786822_nUn obispo japonés, comentado el versículo del Evangelio “yo soy el camino, la verdad y la vida” (Jn 14,6), decía que la enseñanza de Jesús se puede aplicar también a otras religiones. Yo mismo, como Superior general de los jesuitas, tengo que viajar con frecuencia por el mundo y constato que este obispo tenía razón. Asia en particular muy bien podría considerarse como “el camino”. En Asia el empeño constante es buscar el camino, el “cómo”: cómo hacer yoga, cómo concentrarse, cómo meditar. El yoga, el zen, las religiones, el judo ─que suele traducirse como “el camino del débil”, porque se sirve de la fuerza del otro─ son todos considerados como caminos. Sin entrar en comparaciones, habría que considerar que Europa y los Estados Unidos andan preocupados especialmente por “la verdad”; mientras que América Latina y África están preocupados por “la vida”; los valores relacionados con la vida son muy importantes. Por ello tenemos necesidad de todos, porque todos tienen una sabiduría y una contribución que hacer a la humanidad.

Ha llegado el momento en que debemos pensar en la humanidad como un todo y no como un conjunto de diversos países, separados unos de otros por sus tradiciones, sus culturas y sus prejuicios. Tendríamos que pensar en una humanidad que necesita a Dios, que necesita un modo de profundidad que solo puede venir de la unión de todos. Así que tendríamos que estar agradecidos por esta contribución de los migrantes y refugiados a esa humanidad integral. Ellos nos hacen caer en la cuenta de que la humanidad no está formada solo por una parte, sino que se forma con la contribución de todos.

Además, ellos son, al propio tiempo, la parte más débil y más fuerte de la humanidad. La más débil porque han experimentado el miedo, la violencia, la soledad y los prejuicios de los otros; todo esto forma parte de su experiencia, bien lo sabemos. Pero nos muestran también la parte más fuerte de la humanidad: nos hacen comprender cómo superar el miedo, con el coraje de afrontar los riesgos que no todos estaríamos dispuestos a afrontar. En sus esperanzas de futuro, han aprendido a no dejarse paralizar por las dificultades. Han sabido superar la soledad mediante la solidaridad, ayudando a los otros y han demostrado así que la humanidad es débil, pero puede ser fuerte. Nos han enseñado incluso que hay valores y realidades más profundas que las que habíamos perdido. Esto es habitual cuando se viven situaciones extremas.

Me acuerdo a este respecto de la experiencia de un hermano mío que vive en Estados Unidos. Mientras ardía una casa vecina, temió que el fuego llegase a su propia vivienda. Y me confesó que, mientras era presa del miedo, aprendió a distinguir lo que era importante de lo que no lo era. No corrió a poner a salvo el dinero, sino que agarró un fajo de fotografías que representaban sus raíces y su vida. En ese momento entendió que lo más importante es lo que guardaba dentro de sí mismo y no lo de fuera, ni siquera la propia casa. Todo eso lo experimentan también los refugiados: han visto el peligro de cara y lo han afrontado. Pensemos al menos por un momento: si no tuviésemos ya una casa, una familia, una lengua… si tuviésemos solo la vida y ésta incluso amenazada, ¿qué haríamos? ¿qué pensaríamos? ¿qué o a quiénes amaríamos?

Celebramos este año el Año de la Misericordia, un concepto central en muchas religiones. En el cristianismo, en el islam, en el judaísmo y en todas las grandes religiones, la misericordia es un concepto muy importante. Sin ella no se puede vivir y los migrantes y refugiados nos muestran precisamente uno de sus rostros. Cuando alguien lo tiene todo, puede ser misericordioso sin miedo, pero cuando una persona no tiene nada y, aún así, se muestra misericordioso con otra, está dando mucho más y el rostro de la misericordia se vuelve en este caso todavía más real.

De este modo, podríamos aprender de los migrantes y refugiados a ser misericordiosos con los otros. Aprendamos de ellos a ser humanos a pesar de todo. Aprendamos de ellos a tener como horizonte el mundo y no nuestra pequeña y estrecha cultura. Aprendamos de ellos a ser personas del mundo.

(Traducción: Juan V. Fernández de la Gala)

 

«The Joy of Love». The Structure and Meaning of Pope Francis’ Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation

image«The Joy of Love»
The Structure and Meaning of Pope Francis’ Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation

Antonio Spadaro S.J.

(This is a first draft translation of my article published in Italian on http://www.laciviltacattolica.it)

 

(translation by Reyanna Rice)

The family is a challenging journey, as it is throughout life, for that matter.  The strength, the burden of humanity contained therein are incalculable: the mutual help, the relationships that grow with the growth of the person, the generativity, the educational accompaniment, the sharing of joys and difficulties.  The family is the place in which one lives «the joy of love».  There are so many signs that speak of the crisis of marriage, but despite everything «the desire to marry and form a family remains vibrant, especially among young people, and this is an inspiration to the Church » (AL 1; RS 2)[1]

The first task of pastors must be that of taking care of this joy and to value what is attractive in family life.  It is a fragile and complex experience –and for this reason, rich–, that brings into play not ideas, but people.  Moreover, «no family drops down from heaven perfectly formed; families need constantly to grow and mature in the ability to love » (AL 325).

The meaning of the title  

Amoris laetitia (The Joy of Love) is the title of Pope Francis’ post-synodal Apostolic Exhortation, signed March 19, 2016 and published the following April 8th.  The title, in its reference to joy, is assonant in inspiration to Evangelii gaudium (EG), the previous Apostolic Exhortation.  What are for Pope Francis gaudium, laetitia?  That term «joy» in its various declination is one of the more recurrent words of the Bergolian vocabulary.  He declines it often with additives such as «new», «creative», «spiritual», «profound», «intimate», «immense»,«irrepressible», «internal», «full», «escatological»[2].  In the Joy of the Gospel he had also dedicated in a specific manner some meditations in his Spiritual Exercise courses.[3]  This is Pope Francis’ fundamental certainty: «The joy of the Gospel fills the hearts and the lives of all who encounter Jesus» (EG 1).

Of what joy is Pope Francis speaking here?  It is a fruit of the Holy Spirit, that flows from the heart of the risen Christ (cfr EG 2)[4].  Only the encounter with the Lord can give this joy, not an ethical decision or an adherence to an idea.  The Pontiff is in full tune with what his predecessor said in the Encyclical Deus Caritas est: «I never tire of repeating those words of Benedict XVI which take us to the very heart of the Gospel: “Being a Christian is not the result of an ethical choice or a lofty the idea, but the encounter with an event, a person, which gives life a new horizon and a decisive direction”» (EG 7)

In particular, the expression «amoris laetitia» was used by Benedict XVI in his Apostolic letter in the form of the motu proprio Porta Fidei, with which he had called the Year of Faith: «The joy of love (amoris laetitia), the answer to the drama of suffering and pain, the power of forgiveness in the face of an offence received and the victory of life over the emptiness of death: all this finds fulfilment in the mystery of his [of Jesus Christ] Incarnation, in his becoming man, in his sharing our human weakness so as to transform it by the power of his resurrection» (n.  13). This implicit citation helps us understand how our humanity, of which family life is an integral part, is transformed by the power of the resurrection of the Lord.  The «joy of love» finds in the Risen One its fulfilment.

This Exhortation is, first of all, a message of faith in a time in which «to get involved» in family life has become something complex.  Man and woman are interpreting themselves in a manner different from the past, with different categories.  The anthropology with which the Church has traditionally referenced marriage and the language with which she has expressed it remain a solid reference, the fruit of wisdom and secular experience.  However, it seems that the man and woman to which the Church addresses herself today are no longer able to understand it as it one time, or they do not consider it sufficient in any case, or are not apprised of the power of laetitia.  How are we to position ourselves in a correct manner, that is evangelical, before these challenges?

A fruit of the synodal journey

This is why Pope Francis opened a «synodal process», that was composed of two Synods: one extraordinary and one ordinary.  The first one was dedicated to the theme The pastoral challenges on the family in the context of Evangelization (October 5 – 19, 2014)[5].  In reality it was a milestone within a broader process in the month of November 2013, when a «preparatory document» was issued that included a broad questionnaire for the faithful and the local Churches.  The document, very nimble, replaced the Lineamenta and had the objective of involving the people of God in the synodal process from start.[6]  From the Extraordinary Assembly an Ordinary followed (October 4 – 25, 2015) on the theme Jesus Christ reveals the mystery and the vocation of the family[7]

The Holy Father asked the Synodal Fathers to be frank in speaking and humble in listening, knowing that to guide the discussions of all is the good of the Church, the family and, definitely, the suprema lex, that is the salus animarum (cfr CIC 1752).  And this always therefore without ever putting into discussion the fundamental truth of the Sacrament of Matrimony: indissolubility, unity, faithfulness, and procreativity, that is openness to life.  In effect, the two Synods have looked into the face of reality, naming it, even in the more problematic aspects.  In the discussions the concrete existence of people was welcomed, more than talking of family such as it should be, that is in the abstract.

The two Synods have produced two conclusive reports, called respectively Relatio SynodiI and Relatio Finalis.  This last one was approved in full with the qualifying majority of  2/3 of the Synodal Fathers.  In his Apostolic Exhortation, Pope Francis has broadly enhanced valorized the Relatio Finalis in his text by substantially welcoming not only some citations, but the general setting and approach to problems.  To these citations are added references to documents from the Episcopal Conferences of Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Kenya, Australia, Columbia, Italy, Korea, and Chile.  Therefore, Amoris Laetitia finds its roots in a broad reflection of the episcopate, and in this sense is to be considered the fruit of a wide synodal and ecclesial process of reflection on the family.  It expresses an ecclesiology of communion and it represents an effective witnessing.

But obviously the Exhortation, and its breadth, also echoes the previous pontifical Magisterium.  Certainly, Francis often makes reference to the message that he himself has wanted to give with his catechesis on the family, begun in December 2014 and developed in the entire time between the two Synods and to the vigil of the Jubilee of Mercy.  But, broad space is also given to catechesis of St john Paul II, in particular to that on the «theology of the body» (1980) and on the «language of the body» (1984), that was evoked at different times in the course of the Synods.  Naturally, and on the basis of how much was expressed by the participant Bishops at the Synods, it is not lacking in substantial references to Gaudium et spes of the Vatican Council II (nn.  47- 52), to Humanae vitae of Paul VI, to Familaris consortio of St john Paul II, and to Deus Caritas est of Benedict XVI.

These references are accompanied by citations of significant personalities like Martin Luther King, Erich Fromm, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer.  Of note is a citation from the film Babette’s Feast, that the pope loves very much and recalls here to explain the concept of gratuity and of celebration.  Significant is the citation from Te uiero by the  Uruguayan poet of Italian origins Mario Benedetti.  An Exhortation on love, not on the doctrine of marriage.

Before continuing in the reflection, we need to specify well the topic of the Exhortation.  It is, as the subtitle clearly certifies, «on love in the family».  Therefore, it is not only on the doctrine of marriage and the family.  This is an important key to read the document.  You will understand it in the analysis that we do, but already here we can, from the outset, warn the reader.  For this reason, even before those  «who have difficulties in living God’s law to the full, the invitation to pursue the via caritatis  must be clearly heard »  (AL 306).  It might appear singular how at this point the Pontiff cites various Biblical passages that have a theme of the works of mercy that cover sins (cfr AL 306): «love covers a multitude of sins» ( 1 Pt 4:8); «redeem your sin with alms giving and your iniquity with acts of mercy towards the afflicted» (Dn 4: 24);«water puts out the raging fire, almsgiving atones for sins» (Sir 3:30).  In reality here comes into focus what really counts: love.  Therefore, the Exhortation is an invitation to whoever lives in irregular situations to journey a path of merciful love towards others.  If it is not possible to change an irregular situation, it is always possible to journey on this way of salvation.

But the entire document insists on pastoral work to share the growth of love: «All this occurs through a process of constant growth. The very special form of love that is marriage is called to embody what Saint Thomas Aquinas said about charity in general.

“Charity”, he says, “by its very nature, has no limit to its increase, for it is a participation in that infinite charity which is the Holy Spirit…Nor on the part of the subject can its limit be fixed, because as charity grows, so too does its capacity for an even greater increase”» (AL 134, emphasis ours).  This, on the other hand, also means that we need «to stop demanding of our interpersonal relationships a perfection, a purity of intentions and a consistency which we will only encounter in the Kingdom to come» (AL 325)

Then «we cannot encourage a path of fidelity and mutual self-giving without encouraging the growth, strengthening and deepening of conjugal and family love. » (AL 89).  It is precisely growth in the capacity to love that must guide «the pastoral effort to strengthen marriages and thus to prevent their breakdown» (AL 307)

A multifaceted architectural structure

The Apostolic Exhortation is subdivided into nine chapters and beyond 300 paragraphs.  It is striking for its breadth, due to the wealth of two years of reflection that has made up the synodal journey.  The Pontiff himself does not advise a «rushed reading»: if anything it will be patiently deepened by reading it one part after the other, or it even may be used looking for what serves «their specific needs» (AL 7).

The encyclical opens with six introductory paragraphs, that make clear the full awareness of the complexity of the theme that requires deepening.  It affirms that the interventions of the Fathers of the Synod have composed a «multifaceted gem» (AL 4), that is preserved.  In this sense, the pope writes that «not all discussions of doctrinal, moral or pastoral issues need to be settled by interventions of the magisterium » (AL 3).  Then, for some questions «each country or region, moreover, can seek solutions better suited to its culture and sensitive to its traditions and local needs For “cultures are in fact quite diverse and every general principle… needs to be inculturated, if it is to be respected and applied”» (ibid).  This principle of inculturation proves truly important even in the way of setting out and understanding the problems, that, beyond dogmatic questions well defined by the teaching of the Church, cannot be «globalized»[8]

But, above all, the Pope immediately affirmed and with clarity that we need to get out of the muddy quagmire of the contraposition between anxiety about change and pure and simple application of abstract norms.  He writes: «The debates carried on in the media, in certain publications and even among the Church’s ministers, range from an immoderate desire for total change without sufficient reflection or grounding, to an attitude that would solve everything by applying general rules or deriving undue conclusions from particular theological considerations » (AL 2).

On this basis, the pope articulates his reflection beginning from Sacred Scripture with the first chapter.  The Bible «is full of families, births, love stories and family crises. » (AL 8)[9], and beginning from this information you can meditate how the family is not an abstract ideal, but a «”craftsmanship” task» (AL 16, in Italian), that one expresses with tenderness (cfr AL 28), but it’s also confronted with sin since from the beginning, when the relationship of love is transformed into domination (cfr AL 19).  Then the Word of God «is not a series of abstract ideas but rather a source of comfort and companionship for every family that experiences difficulties or suffering. » (AL 22).

Beginning from the biblical terrain, in the second chapter the Pope considers the actual situation of the family, keeping «firmly grounded» (AL 6) and confronting some challenges: from the migratory phenomenon to the ideological negation of sexual difference; from the attention for persons with disabilities to respect of  elders; from the juridical deconstruction of the family to the violence against women.  The Pontiff insists on concreteness, that is a fundamental cipher of the Exhortation.  And, concreteness and realism are what places a substantial difference between «theories» and «ideological» interpretation of reality.

Citing Familiaris consortio, Francis affirms that «we do well to focus on concrete realities, since “the call and the demands of the Spirit resound in the events of history”, and through these “the Church can also be guided to a more profound understanding of the inexhaustible mystery of marriage and the family”» (AL 31).  Without listening to reality therefore, it is not possible to understand either the needs of the present or the appeal of the Spirit.  The Pope notes that exaggerated individualism makes it difficult today to give oneself to another person in a generous way (cfr AL 33).  Here is an interesting snapshot of the situation: «The fear of loneliness and the desire for stability and fidelity exist side by side with a growing fear of entrapment in a relationship that could hamper the achievement of one’s personal goals» (AL 34).  The humility of realism helps to not present «a far too abstract and almost artificial theological ideal of marriage, far removed from the concrete situations and practical possibilities of real families » (AL 36).  Idealism alienates from consideration what marriage is, that is a «dynamic path to personal development and fulfilment » (AL 37).  For this reason you do not even have to believe that families being supported «simply by stressing doctrinal, bioethical and moral issues»  (ibid), with the risk of  losing «compassion and closeness to the frailty of individuals like the Samaritan woman or the woman caught in adultery. » (AL 38).

The third chapter is dedicated to some essential elements of the Church’s teaching about marriage and family.  The presence of this chapter is important, because it illustrates in a synthetic manner, in 30 paragraphs, the vocation of the family according to the Gospel as it was received by the Church in time, above all regarding the theme of indissolubility.  But,the Pontiff clearly asks something immediately: that you place  all the doctrine on marriage and the family under the light of kerygma. «In and among families, the Gospel message should always resound; the core of that message ,the kerygma, is what is “most beautiful, most excellent, most appealing and at the same time most necessary”» (AL 58).  And, this because «all Christian formation consists of entering more deeply into the kerygma » (ibid).  Therefore «our teaching on marriage and the family cannot fail to be inspired and transformed by this message of love and tenderness; otherwise, it becomes nothing more than the defense of a dry and lifeless doctrine.  The mystery of the Christian family can be fully understood only in the light of the Father’s infinite love revealed in Christ, who gave himself up for our sake and who continues to dwell in our midst» (A.L 59).  Therefore—the Pope-continues-«I now wish to turn my gaze to the living Christ, who is at the heart of so many love stories, and to invoke the fire of the Spirit upon all the world’s families» (ibid).  Here there is truly the pulsing heart of the entire Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Francis.

In his wide look, it includes reflection on «imperfect situations».  In fact we read: «Discernment of the presence of ‘seeds of the Word’ in other cultures (cfr Ad gentes, 11) can also apply to the reality of marriage and family» (AL 77).  The reflection also includes «family wounds», in the face of which the Pope affirms, broadly citing the Relato Finalis of the Synod: «it is always necessary to recall this general principle: ‘Pastors must know that, for the sake of truth, they are obliged to exercise careful discernment of situations (Familaris consorti, 84)» (AL 79).  Therefore, while the doctrine expresses with clarity, they are to avoid judgments that do not take into account the complexity of the diverse situations, and it is necessary to be attentive to the way in which the people live and suffer because of their condition.

The fourth chapter is about love in marriage, and it illustrates it beginning from the hymn of 1 Cor 13:4 – 7.  The chapter is a true and proper, detailed, inspired and poetic exegesis of the Pauline text.  We could say that is a collection of fragments of a loving discourse that is attentive to describing human love in concrete absolute terms.  You remain struck by the capacity for psychological introspection that marks this exegesis.  The psychological deepening enters into the world of the emotions of the spouses—positive and negative—and in the erotic dimension of love.

In its way, this chapter constitutes a treatise within the broader discussion, fully aware of the everyday life of love and enemy of any idealism: «there is no need to lay upon two limited persons—writes the Pope–the tremendous burden of having to reproduce perfectly the union existing between Christ and his Church, for marriage as a sign entails “a dynamic process…, one which advances gradually with the progressive integration of the gifts of God”» (AL 122).  On the other hand, the Pope insists in a strong and decisive manner on the fact that «it is in the very nature of conjugal love to be definitive» (AL 123), precisely within that «mixture of enjoyment and struggles, tensions and repose, pain and relief, satisfactions and longings, annoyances and pleasures » (AL 126) that is exactly marriage.  The chapter concludes with a reflection on the «transformation of love», so that «longer life spans now mean that close and exclusive relationships must last for four, five or even six decades; consequently, the initial decision has to be frequently renewed» (AL 163).  The physical aspect changes and the loving attraction is not less but changes; sexual desire with time can transform into the desire for intimacy and complicity. «There is no guarantee that we will feel the same way all through life. Yet if a couple can come up with a shared and lasting life project, they can love one another and live as one until death do them part, enjoying an enriching intimacy» (AL 163).

The fifth chapter is entirely concentrated on the fertility and the generativity of love.  It speaks in a profound psychological and spiritual manner of the welcoming of new life, of precisely the expectation of pregnancy, of the love of the mother and father.  But also, of an enlarged fruitfulness and life in the family in a broad sense, with the presence of aunts and uncles, cousins and even neighbors.  Amoris laetitia does not take into consideration the «mononuclear» family, but he is well aware of family as networks of broad relationships.  The mysticism itself of the Sacrament of Matrimony has a profound social character (cfr AL 186).  And within this social dimension the Pope underlines in a particular way both the specific role of the relationship between young people and the elderly, and the relationship between brothers and sisters as an apprenticeship of growth in relationship with others.

In the sixth chapter the Pontiff addresses some pastoral ways that orient and build solid and fertile families according to God’s plan. But, it has to be clear that the Pope prefers to allow family pastoral practice to local creativity: «Different communities will have to devise more practical and effective initiatives that respect both the Church’s teaching and local problems and needs» (AL 199). This is why he does not claim to present a pastoral of the family, but he limits himself to collect «some more significant pastoral challenges» (ibid). He a reaffirms that the family is a subject, and not only an object, of evangelization. He notes «that ordained ministers often lack the training needed to deal with the complex problems currently facing families» (AL 202). If on the one hand we need to improve the psycho-affective formation of seminarians and involving the family more in the formation of the ministry (cfr AL 203), on the other hand «the experience of the broad oriental tradition of a married clergy could also be drawn upon» (AL 202).

Then the Pope addresses the theme of guiding engaged couples in a journey of preparation for marriage, of accompanying of spouses in the first years of married life, but also in some complex situations and in crises, knowing that «Each crisis has a lesson to teach us; we need to learn how to listen for it with the ear of the heart» (AL 232).  He is analyzing some causes of crisis.  Among these, a delayed affect if maturation, in which «yet the fact is that only in their forties do some people achieve a maturity that should have come at the end of adolescence» (AL 239).  Finally, he speaks also of the accompaniment of abandoned, separated, or divorced people, and also of situations in which death plants its sting.

The seventh chapter is dedicated entirely to the education of children: their ethical formation, the value of penalty as a stimulus, patient realism, sexual education, the transmission of the faith and, more in general, family life as an educative context.  The practical wisdom that shines through from every paragraph and above all the attention to graduality and too little steps «that can be understood, accepted and appreciated» (AL 271) are interesting.  There is a particularly meaningful and pedagogically fundamental paragraph in which Francis clearly affirms that «obsession, however, is not education. We cannot control every situation that a child may experience» (AL 261).  Therefore «here it remains true that “time is greater than space”».  That is to say, it is about generating processes more than dominating spaces.  If the parent is obsessed about knowing where to find his or her son or daughter and in controlling all their movements, he or she will seek only to dominate their space.  And, in this way the parent will not educate, will not strengthen nor will they prepare their son or daughter to face challenges.  That which principally concerns is generating in the child, with much love, processes of maturation of his or her freedom, of preparation, of integral growth, of the cultivation of an authentic autonomy» (ibid, emphasis ours).  You could apply this principle analogically to the preoccupation that mother Church has for all her children, that she educates them in the faith and to the faith.

The eighth chapter constitutes an invitation to mercy and to pastoral discernment in the face of situations that do not respond fully to what the Lord proposes.  The Pope here uses three very important verbs—to accompany, to discern and to integrate–,that are fundamental in addressing situations of complex or irregular fragility.  Then he takes into consideration the need for graduality in pastoral practice, the importance of discernment, the extenuating norms and circumstances in pastoral discernment; and finally that which he defines as the «logic of pastoral mercy».  On it the Pontiff writes: «At times we find it hard to make room for God’s unconditional love in our pastoral activity.  We put so many conditions on mercy that we empty it of its concrete meaning and real significance. That is the worst way of watering down the Gospel» (AL 311, emphasis ours).

Chapter eight is a delicate chapter, for reading what is required, remembering that «the Church’s task is often like that of a field hospital» (AL 291).  Here the pope takes up that which was the fruit of the reflection of the Synod on themes widely discussed.  He reiterates what Christian marriage is, and he adds that «some forms of union radically contradict this ideal, while others realize it in at least a partial and analogous way» (AL 292).  The Church, therefore,  «does not disregard the constructive elements in those situations which do not yet or no longer correspond to her teaching on marriage» (ibid).  We will deepen the content of this chapter in the pages following.

The ninth chapter is dedicated to conjugal and family spirituality, «made up of thousands of small but real gestures» (AL 315).  He says with clarity that «those who have deep spiritual aspirations should not feel that the family detracts from their growth in the life of the Spirit, but rather see it as a path which the Lord is using to lead them to the heights of mystical union» (AL 316).  «moments of joy, relaxation, celebration, and even sexuality can be experienced as a sharing in the full life of the resurrection» (AL 317).  He speaks than of prayer in the light of Easter, of the spirituality of exclusive and free love in the challenge and in the longing of aging and wearing themselves out together, reflecting God’s faithfulness (cfr AL 318).  And finally, he speaks of «a spirituality of care, consolation and incentive».  «All family life is a “shepherding” in mercy» (AL 322), says the Pope.  It is a profound «spiritual experience to contemplate our loved ones with the eyes of God and  to see Christ in them» (AL 323).

The Apostolic Exhortation concludes with a Prayer to the Holy Family, preceded by an appeal «Let us make this journey as families, let us keep walking together!» (AL 325).

As it is possible to already understand by a rapid examination of its contents, the Apostolic Exhortation Amoris Laetitia intends to reiterate with strength not the «ideal» of the family, but its rich and complex reality.  There is, in its pages, an open, profound and positive gaze, that does not feed on abstractions or ideal projections, but on a pastoral attention to reality.  The document is a dense letter of spiritual ideas and practical wisdom, fruit of a concrete experience with people who really know what the family is and who have lived together for many years.  The Exhortation indeed speaks the language of experience and of lived daily life

Discernment, depth, compassionate closeness

Thus, it is possible to recognize some background attitudes of the Exhortation that, placed in continuity with the living Tradition of the Church, represents an evolution above all in those passages regarding the accompaniment of people in situations of fragility or irregularity.  The Pope has substantially welcomed what the synodal Fathers, at a qualifying majority of 2/3, have affirmed in the Relatio Finalis.  In this sense, the Exhortation is truly the fruits of an extensive and broadly shared synodal reflection.

A key word of the Exhortation is «discernment».  And, discernment makes direct reference to conscience and to historicity.  Pope Francis repeats many times that a danger to avoid, and in which reality is frequently lost, is that of being abstract, theoretical, idealistic.  At times, he writes «we have also proposed a far too abstract and almost artificial theological ideal of marriage, far removed from the concrete situations and practical possibilities of real families. This excessive idealization, especially when we have failed to inspire trust in God’s grace, has not helped to make marriage more desirable and attractive, but quite the opposite» (AL 36).

Not only, but «We have long thought that simply by stressing doctrinal, bioethical and moral issues, without encouraging openness to grace, we were providing sufficient support to families, strengthening the marriage bond and giving meaning to marital life» (AL 37).  It would be to believe an illusion that people are reassured and consolidated in values solely because we insist on preaching doctrine without giving adequate «room for the consciences of the faithful, who very often respond as best they can to the Gospel amid their limitations, and are capable of carrying out their own discernment in complex situations. We have been called to form consciences, not to replace them» (AL 37, emphasis ours).

The Pope insists on a «a positive and welcoming pastoral approach capable of helping couples to grow in appreciation of the demands of the Gospel» (AL 38, emphasis ours. And instead «we have often been on the defensive, wasting pastoral energy on denouncing a decadent world without being proactive in proposing ways of finding true happiness. Many people feel that the Church’s message on marriage and the family does not clearly reflect the preaching and attitudes of Jesus, who set forth a demanding ideal yet never failed to show compassion and closeness to the frailty of individuals like the Samaritan woman or the woman caught in adultery» (ibid, emphasis ours).  Then, discernment, conscience, deepening, compassionate closeness, are key-words of the Apostolic Exhortation.

Wounds and these «irregular» situations live: they need «careful discerning»

Regarding wounded situations and those called «irregular», the Exhortation reflects the the Final Report of Synod overall criterion expressed by Saint John Paul II in Familiaris consorti with a good formula: «careful discernment of situations» (FC 84).  In fact, there is a difference «between those who have sincerely tried to save their first marriage and have been unjustly abandoned, and those who through their own grave fault have destroyed a canonically valid marriage» (FC 85). Francis fully assumes this perspective, that was reiterated and confirmed in the Realatio Synodi: «the discernment of pastors must always take place “by adequately distinguishing” with an approach which “carefully discerns situations”. We know that no “easy recipes” exist» (AL 298).

But there are also «“those who have entered into a second union for the sake of the children’s upbringing, and are sometimes subjectively certain in conscience that their previous and irreparably broken marriage had never been valid”» (FC 84;AL 298).  The Synod affirmed that it is the task of priests to «accompany [the divorced and remarried] in helping them on the path of discernment according to the teaching of the Church and the guidelines of the bishop» (AL 300, more literal translation from the Italian version). This itinerary imposes a pastoral discernment that makes reference to the authority of the Pastor, judge and doctor, who is first of all the «minister of divine mercy», as is written in the Apostolic Letter in the form of the motu proprio of Pope Francis Mitis et misericors Iesus.

The Exhortation recovers from the synodal document the path of discernment for individual cases without placing limits on integration, as it appeared in the past.  He declares further that you cannot negate that in some circumstances «imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified» (AL 302; cfr CCC 1735) due to diverse constraints. «For this reason—Pope Francis writes—, a negative judgment about an objective situation does not imply a judgment about the imputability or culpability of the person involved.  On the basis of these convictions, I consider very fitting what many Synod Fathers wanted to affirm: “Under certain circumstances people find it very difficult to act differently. […]  discernment, while taking into account a person’s properly formed conscience, must take responsibility for these situations. Even the consequences of actions taken are not necessarily the same in all cases”» (AL 302).[10] The conclusion is that the Pontiff, listening to the synodal Fathers, takes awareness that you can no longer talk of an abstract category of persons and confine the practices of integration within a rule completely general and valid in every case.[11]

Then, concludes the Pontiff, when you take into account the innumerable varieties of concrete situations, «it is understandable that neither the Synod nor this Exhortation could be expected to provide a new set of general rules, canonical in nature and applicable to all cases. What is possible is simply a renewed encouragement to undertake a responsible personal and pastoral discernment of particular cases, one which would recognize that, since “the degree of responsibility is not equal in all cases”, the consequences or effects of a rule need not necessarily always be the same» (AL 300, emphasis ours)

This has nothing to do with a certain «situation ethics» or with an ethical individualism that leaves every ethical criteria to the individual conscience, jealously closed in on itself and made absolute arbiter of its determinations.  The reference to «the Gospel demands of truth and charity, as proposed by the Church» (AL 300) is for the Pontiff essential: these demands can never be substituted by the real and concrete conditions or circumstances in which you must act.  If anything, Francis affirms that it is necessary to remember that «The Church possesses a solid body of reflection concerning mitigating factors and situations. Hence it can no longer simply be said that all those in any “irregular” situation are living in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of sanctifying grace. More is involved here than mere ignorance of the rule. A subject may know full well the rule, yet have great difficulty in understanding “its inherent values”, or be in a concrete situation which does not allow him or her to act differently and decide otherwise without further sin. As the Synod Fathers put it, “factors may exist which limit the ability to make a decision”» (AL 301, emphasis ours).

Therefore, the consequences or the facts of the norm must not necessarily be always the same, «this is also the case with regard to sacramental discipline, since discernment can recognize that in a particular situation no grave fault exists» (AL 300, n. 336).  «Because of forms of conditioning and mitigating factors, it is possible that in an objective situation of sin –which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such – a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace and charity, while receiving the Church’s help to this end» (AL 305).  And—it is stated—this help «In certain cases, this can include the help of the sacraments. Hence, “I want to remind priests that the confessional must not be a torture chamber, but rather an encounter with the Lord’s mercy” (Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium. I would also point out that the Eucharist “is not a prize for the perfect, but a powerful medicine and nourishment for the weak”» (AL 305, n. 351)[12]

From «Familiaris consortio» to «Amoris laetitia»

If we go back to Familiaris consortio, we can verify that the conditions placed 35 years ago by it were already a concretization more open and more attentive to the experience of the people, with respect to the preceding time.  On the divorced and civilly remarried the Apostolic Exhortation of St John Paul II (1981) affirmed: «I earnestly call upon pastors and the whole community of the faithful to help the divorced, and with solicitous care to make sure that they do not consider themselves as separated from the Church, for as baptized persons they can, and indeed must, share in her life» (FC 84).  On access to the sacraments, John Paul II reiterated the preceding norm, and always affirms that the divorced and civilly remarried and who live their conjugal life together, raising together children and sharing daily life, can take communion.  But it places a «condition» (that is at another level with respect to the norm): that of assuming «on themselves the duty to live in complete continence, that is, by abstinence from the acts proper to married couples» (ibid).

Therefore in Familiaris consortio the defacto norm does not apply always and in all cases.  In the situations described, it is already of an epiekeia about the application of the law to a concrete case, because, as the continence eliminates the sin of adultery, it does not always suppress  the contradiction between the marital breakup with the formation of a new couple—who live even so bonds of an affective character and of coexistence—and the Eucharist.

Regarding the sexual relationships, the formulation of St John Paul II required «taking on themselves the duty to live in complete continence»[13].  In Sacramentum caritatis Benedict XVI had renewed this concept, but with a different formulization: «the Church encourages these members of the faithful to commit themselves to living their relationship in fidelity to the demands of God’s law, as friends, as brother and sister» (SC 29, emphasis ours).  The «encouragement to the commitment» implies a journey and focuses more and in a more adequate manner the accent placed on the personal dimension of conscience.  Pope Francis moves forward on this line when he speaks of a «dynamic discernment», that «must remain ever open to new stages of growth and to new decisions which can enable the ideal to be more fully realized» (AL 303).  You cannot transform an irregular situation into a regular one, but paths of healing, of deepening, paths in which the law is lived step after step exist.  After all «the Church’s way, from the time of the Council of Jerusalem, has always been the way of Jesus, the way of mercy and reinstatement…The way of the Church is not to condemn anyone forever» (AL 296).

Negative precepts, general principles and practical reasons

Clearly, the preoccupation of St John Paul II in front of the growth of individualism and subjectivism in moral matters was clear.  We read in Veritatis splendor (VS): «The negative precepts of the natural law are universally valid. They oblige each and every individual, always and in every circumstance. It is a matter of prohibitions which forbid a given action semper et pro semper, without exception» (VS 52).

Nevertheless, with St Thomas it is necessary to distinguish «certitudes and methods, from methods and certitudes in the moral domain. In speculative matters, truth admits no exceptions, either in individual cases or in general principles. But, practical reason, that is to say, morality, deals with contingent realities. The general principles are always universal, but the closer one gets to individual, concrete realities, the more one is bound to encounter exceptions. In the same passage of the Summa Theologiae, Thomas goes on to affirm that in such and such a particular case, there can be, exceptionally, modifications of the natural law, due to special causes»[14].

When St Thomas, in the tract on justice of the Summa Teologica, speaks of fairness that, in the wake of Aristotle, he calls epiekeia, he presents it as «the most prominent part of legal justice».  And he explains: «Because the object for which laws are made concerns human acts involving singular, contingent, and infinitely variable cases, it has always been impossible to establish a legal rule that would never be in default. Thus lawmakers, considering what happens in the majority of cases, have passed laws using this as their point of reference. However, in some cases, the observance of such laws can go against the equality of justice and the common good, which is the object of the law»[15].

It is up to the Pontiff to say up to what point that the Church may be pushed into a line in which equity becomes more clearly epiekeia in its neotestamentary meaning for indulgence and clemency.

To be clearer, we give the example of the condom: it is considered as intrinsically bad, independently of any consideration on the circumstances of its use.  Furthermore, Benedict XVI in his book The light of the world (2010) said: «in certain cases, when the intention is that of reducing the risk of infection, the use of the condom can be a first step to open the way to a more humane sexuality, lived differently.  There can be individual cases, as when a man who is a prostitute uses a condom, in which this can be a first step towards a moralization, a beginning of accountability that allows taking renewed consciousness that not everything is permitted and that you cannot do everything»[16]

Graduality in pastoral practice and the centrality of the conscience

«Recognizing the influence of such concrete factors, we can add that the individual conscience needs to be better incorporated into the Church’s praxis in certain situations which do not objectively embody our understanding of marriage» (AL 303, emphasis ours).  This is an apical point in the Apostolic Exhortation, in as much as it attributes to conscience—«‘the most secret core and sanctuary of a person.  There each one is alone with God, whose voice echoes in the depths of the heart’» (GS 16; AL 222)—a fundamental and irreplaceable place in the evaluation of moral action.

That discernment to which the Pontiff refers is molded by the «demands of truth and charity, as proposed by the Church» (AL 300).  He affirms that «every effort should be made to encourage the development of an enlightened conscience, formed and guided by the responsible and serious discernment of one’s pastor, and to encourage an ever greater trust in God’s grace» (AL 303).  For this reason, he does not fall into the «graduality of the law» (AL 295; cfr AL 300).

But, this conscience «can do more than recognize that a given situation does not correspond objectively to the overall demands of the Gospel. It can also recognize with sincerity and honesty what for now is the most generous response which can be given to God, and come to see with a certain moral security that it is what God himself is asking amid the concrete complexity of one’s limits, while yet not fully the objective ideal» (AL 303, emphasis ours)

This passage of the Exhortation opens the door to a positive pastoral practice, welcoming, and fully «catholic», that makes possible a gradual deepening of the demands of the gospel (cfr AL 38).  In other words, here it is not said at all to assume one’s own weakness as a criteria to establish what is good and what is bad (this would be considered «graduality of the law»).  However, it affirms a «law of graduality», that is a progression in knowing, in desiring and in doing a good: «tending towards the fullness of the Christian life does not mean to do what  abstractly  is more perfect, but that which is concretely possible»[17].  This graduality cannot at all be confused with relativism.  It is necessary to leave open the «prudential» exercise of the free act of a sinful man or woman who, unless by an exceptional grace, does not moralize in a single blow.  So the Pontiff expresses, referring to n.  44 of Evangelii gaudium: «without detracting from the evangelical ideal, they need to accompany with mercy and patience the eventual stages of personal growth as these progressively occur», allowing space to the «the Lord’s mercy, which spurs us on to do our best» (AL 308, emphasis ours).

With the humility of its realism the Exhortation Amoris Laetitia places itself within the great tradition of the Church, referring back to an old Roman tradition of ecclesial mercy towards sinners.  The Church of Rome, that from the time of the second century, inaugurated a practice of penitence for sins committed after baptism.  In the third century that’s what was to provoke a schism on part of the Church of North Africa, guided by St Cyprian, because this reconciliation was not accepted with the lapsi, that is the apostates during the persecution, who were in fact more numerous than the martyrs.[18]

At this point, Francis affirms understanding that there are believers, and also pastors, who «prefer a more rigorous pastoral care which leaves no room for confusion» (AL 308).  Moreover he affirms with clarity sincerely believing—and here, obviously, he is not only expressing a simple personal opinion—«Jesus wants a Church attentive to the goodness which the Holy Spirit sows in the midst of human weakness, a Mother who, while clearly expressing her objective teaching» (ibid).  Here is therefore that clear pastoral direction: «pastors, in proposing to the faithful the full ideal of the Gospel and the Church’s teaching, must also help them to treat the weak with compassion, avoiding aggravation or unduly harsh or hasty judgements. The Gospel itself tells us not to judge or condemn (cf. Mt 7:1; Lk 6:37)» (ibid).

A radical pastoral Exhortation

In Evangelli gaudium Pope Francis wrote that in a world in which after 2000 years, Jesus is back to being a stranger in many countries even in the West, «we need to be realistic and not assume that our audience understands the full background to what we’re saying or is capable of relating what we say to the very heart of the Gospel which gives its meaning, beauty and attractiveness» (EG 34).

This is why this style itself of Amoris laetitia  is tied to the need for a «renewal» and, more still, for a true «conversion» of language.  The objective is clear: to make sure that the proclamation of the Gospel is not theoretical or decoupled from the real life of people.  The Gospel must be meaningful and must reach everyone.  To speak of families and to families, the problem is not that of changing the doctrine, but of enculturating the general principles so that they may be understood and practiced.  Our language must encourage and support every step of every real family. Consequently, Pope Francis has expressed laying pastoral discernment at the foundation of his discourse.

Often Pope Francis—following his predecessors—ask that the pastors make a discernment between the different lived situations of our faithful people and of all people, families, and persons.  This discernment is not only useful when an exceptional or «irregular» case presents.  The Pope reminds us, precisely at the end of the Exhortation, of not «judging harshly those who live in situations of frailty» and that «all of us are called to keep striving towards something greater than ourselves and our families» (AL 325).  Discernment is a constant process of opening ourselves to the Word of God to illuminate the concrete reality of every life: a process that leads us to be docile to the Spirit, that encourages each one of us to act with love, in concrete situations and as far as possible, and it pushes us to grow better and better.  One characteristic of Ignatian discernment is the insistence to hold in consideration not only the true objective, but to also evaluate if it expresses with good, pro positive spirit.  Discernment is the dialogue of pastors with the Good Shepherd in order to always seek the salvation of the sheep.  This translates into the obligation for the pastors to discern situations carefully (cfr FC 84 and SC 29).

The pastoral concern must not therefore be interpreted as a contraposition with respect to the law.  To the contrary: love for the truth is the point of the fundamental encounter between law and pastoral practice; truth is not abstract and it integrates into the human and Christian itinerary of each faithful.  Pastoral practice is not even a mere practical application contingent on theology.  Nor is it adapting a pastoral practice to doctrine, but it is not stripping off the original and constitutive pastoral stamp from the doctrine.

Already emerged in synodal context of marriage is the desire to not be limited to normative language or condemnation, to use the positive and open language precisely of the Council, assessing a precise pastoral approach in the light of the style of Pope Francis.  In the Ordinary Synod the German Circolo minore (small group) also had clearly affirmed in the Aula: «Our way of thinking is too static and too little biographical and historic»[19].  The language is not simply exterior, but communicates the beating heart of an evangelizing and pastoral Church and not only able to speak to herself and of herself.  The Pontiff, in his discourse at the end of the Synod, therefore spoke of «transmitting the beauty of the Christian News, sometimes covered by the rust of an archaic or simply incomprehensible language»[20]

The language of mercy embodies truth in life.  The Pontiff’s concern in this Exhortation on family love is that of recontextualizing doctrine at the service of the pastoral mission of the Church.  Doctrine is interpreted in relation to the heart of the Christian kerygma and in the light of the pastoral context in which it is applied for the salus animarum
[1] .  From now on, we will quote the Apostolic Exhortatio Amoris laetitia with the abbreviation AL.  With the abbreviation RS we will quote the Relatio Synodi of the EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE SYNOD BISHOPS.  With the abbreviation RF the Relatio Finalis of the XIV ORDINARY GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE SYNOD OF BISHOPS.
[2] . Cfr.  J.  M.  BERGOGLIO, Hope in Him only.  Spiritual exercises to the Spanish Bishops of (January 15-22, 2006), Milan – Vatican City, Jaca Book—Libr. Ed. Vatican, 2014, 74 s, n. 2.
[3] . ID., Open your mind to your heartI, Milan, Rizzoli, 2015, 21 – 29.
[4] .  It echoes here the demand that St Ignatius of Loyola expresses in his Spiritual Exercises (EE. SS.), when, meditating on the resurrection, he asks for gracia para me alegrar y gozar intensamente de tanta gloria y gozo de Cristo nuestro Señor (the grace for me to plead and to intensely enjoy so much the glory and joy of Christ our Lord (EE. SS. 221).
[5] Cfr.  A.SPADARO, The family is the future.  All the documents of the Extraordinary Synod 2014, Milan, Ancora, 2014.  Cfr. also ID, «A Church on a synodal journey.  The pastoral challenges on the family», in Civ. Catt.  2014 IV 213 – 227.
[6] . That contribution of our journal to this involvement was collected in a volume: ID. (ed.), The family, a field hospital.  A biblical, theological and pastoral discussion in contributions from the writers of La Civiltà Cattolica, Brescia, Queriniana, 2015.
[7] . Cfr.  The family beyond the mirage.  All the documents of the Ordinary Synod 2015, Milan, Ancora, 2015.  Cfr.  also ID., «Vocation and mission of the family.  The XIV Ordinary Synod of bishops», in Civ. Catt.  2015 IV 372 – 391.
[8] .  The pope had said very clearly in his discourse at the end of the XIV Ordinary Synod: «What seems normal for a bishop on one continent, is considered strange and almost scandalous – almost! – for a bishop from another; what is considered a violation of a right in one society is an evident and inviolable rule in another; what for some is freedom of conscience is for others simply confusion»
[9] . Cfr M. RASTOIN, «The family and its contradictions.  A biblical approach», in Civ. Catt.  2015 I 527 – 538.
[10] . Cfr CCC 2352; cfr also CONGREGATION FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH, Declaration Iura et bona on euthanasia (May 5, 1980).  St John Paul II, criticizing the category of the «fundamental option», recognized that

«Clearly there can occur situations which are very complex and obscure from a psychological viewpoint and which have an influence on the sinner’s subjective culpability» (Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et paenitentia).  Cfr PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR LEGISLATIVE TEXTS, Dichiarazione sull’ ammissibilità alla Communione dei divorziati risposati (June 24, 2000), n. 2.
[11] . In this regard, we note that, if misunderstood, the intrinsece malum (intrinsic evil) suppresses discussion of the circumstances and on complex situations, by definition, of life. A human act is never easy, and the risk is to “paste” in a false manner the true articulation between object, circumstances and objectives, which should instead be read in the light of freedom and of the attraction to the good as the Apostolic Exhortation rightly does. One cannot reduce, in fact, the free act to the physical act in such a way that the clarity of the logic suppresses any moral discussion and all circumstances. Thus the whole, rich , moral articulation would inevitably be annihilated. In this regard.
[12] .  The Pope had previously  established EG 47 about participation in ecclesial life and the «doors of the

Sacraments».  Cfr. C. GIRAUDO, «The Eucharist: prize for the holy or medicine for the sick?  New horizons of theology beginning from the anaphora of the East and the West», in Civ. Catt.  2015 III 480 – 493.
[13] .  Emphasis ours.
[14] .A. SPADARO, «A “Church of the Pure” or a “Mixed Fish Net”?  Interview with Jean-Miguel Garrigues o.p.» in Civ. Catt.  2015 II 498. Cfr G. COTTIER—CH. SCHöBORN—J.M. GARRIGUES, Truth and mercy.  Conversations with Fr.  Antonio Spadaro, Milan, Ancora, 2015.
[15] . Cfr ibid, 507.
[16] .  BENEDICT XVI, The light of the world.  The Pope, the Church and the signs of the time.  A conversation with Peter Sewald, Milan, Mondadori, 2010, 170 s.  Cfr A. SPADARO, «A “Church of the Pure” or a “Mixed Fish Net”….»,cit., 505 s.
[17] .  ITALIAN EPISCOPAL CONFERENCE, Catechism for adults, 919.
[18] .  Faced with the rigidity of the Donatists in the fourth and fifth century, as later faced with that of that Jansenists, the Church of Rome always refused a «Church of the pure» to the advantage of the reticulum mixtum, that is of the «mixed net» of the just and of sinners, of which St Augustine speaks in Psalmus contra partem Donati.  The pastoral practice of «all or nothing» seems more secular to tutiorism theologians, that leads inevitably to a «Church of the pure».  Valorizing before everything formal perfection as an end in itself, you unfortunately risk covering up in fact many hypocritical and pharisaical behaviors.
[19] . A. SPADARO (ed.), The family beyond the mirge…, cit.  242.
[20] .  POPE FRANCIS, Discourse at the conclusion of the works of the XIV Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 24 2015.